The APTA Late Shift Transit study was a research initiative led by Foursquare ITP exploring the need for late-night commuter transportation in metropolitan areas, the economic impact of the late shift workforce, and the various models transit agencies can use to meet these needs. The project included a literature review and analysis of national employment and demographic data to understand the state of late-night commuting needs. The study team conducted an analysis using U.S. Census PUMS data to identify demographics of late-shift workers, the industries that employ large percentages of late-shift workers, and the travel behavior of the late-night workforce. Over a dozen interviews were conducted with jurisdictions, transit providers, non-profits, and private-businesses to better understand the opportunities and challenges facing late-shift commuters. The study concluded with a report highlighting the state of late-shift transportation, the economic and social cost of poor late-shift mobility, and an analysis of the options for improving late-night transit service through both traditional public transit and through new mobility options. The study was published in September 2019.